**Publication date:** Nov 2018

**Abstract:**

For the Kerr naked singularity (KNS) spacetimes, we study properties of spherical photon orbits (SPOs) confined to constant Boyer-Lindquist radius r. Some new features of the SPOs are found, having no counterparts in the Kerr black hole (KBH) spacetimes, especially stable orbits that could be pure prograde/retrograde, or with turning point in the azimuthal direction. At r>1 (r<1) the covariant photon energy E> 0 (E< 0), at r=1 there is E= 0. All unstable orbits must have E> 0. It is shown that the polar SPOs can exist only in the spacetimes with dimensionless spin a < 1.7996. Existence of closed SPOs with vanishing total change of the azimuth is demonstrated. Classification of the KNS and KBH spacetimes in dependence on their dimensionless spin a is proposed, considering the properties of the SPOs. For selected types of the KNS spacetimes, typical SPOs are constructed, including the closed paths. It is shown that the stable SPOs intersect the equatorial plane in a region of stable circular orbits of test particles, depending on the spin a. Relevance of this intersection for the Keplerian accretion discs is outlined and observational effects are estimated.
**Authors:**

Charbulák, Daniel; Stuchlík, Zdeněk;